We live in 21st century. We do not realize that gender inequality is still present in our lives. As a rule, we think that it does not refer to the world in which we live. We live in a huge agglomerations, in big cities, to work we wear elegant suits, skirts or high heels. We do not realize the fact that gender inequality is still one of the biggest problems. Adversely affects the economy, bringing immense loss.
Nowadays the problem is still visible, women earn less or have fewer opportunities for promotion. Often they must also reconcile two jobs – work and family life. We can say this is a conscious choice of every woman, but usually everything and so is dependent on the economy and biologically conditioned social role. Stereotypically women are perceived as weaker. We can certainly identify occupations typically male and typically female. In the consciousness is contained, that woman can not do typically male activities because she is very delicate and not strong enough and robust. If we analyze the gender segregation in the structure of professional women, they more often occupy the position associated with the “typical” feminine traits that means protectiveness, solicitude. Women occupied the position of nurses, teachers but it was often considered only as an addition to the role of housewife. The turning point was the 70 ‘when feminists began to question its role as housewives and began to demand equal wages. Nowadays assume that in a normal, healthy society where religion does not dictate the conditions, women can work in almost any profession. Unfortunately, access to certain professions remains restricted.
One of the biggest problems today is Wage Gap. Today, women in the same positions still earn less than men. According to the OECD report it is on average 24% less. The pension system in many countries is also a manifestation of overt discrimination. Women work for less which affects the calculation of the amount of pensions at the end of career. Furthermore, when one person has to quite work to take care of a child, it is usually a women. Fortunately, these situations were more common in the past but there are also present. The problem is also skipping on promotions. Increasingly popular are cases when the employer asks a woman with a medical certificate stating that the woman is not pregnant or employer will not hire childless women, fearing that become pregnant. Women are also often exempt from work after giving birth.
Governments must take control of the problem of gender inequality to get an additional 10 thousand pounds in world production. If the participation of women in working life increase until 2025, world production will increase by around 11%. To achieve this, governments must focus on improving the social advantages. The maternity and paternity leave should be improved. According to the report, UBS biggest barrier for women is just motherhood. Other data are also frightening. Two times more girls than boys did not begin education.
At present, the inequality of women is largely dependent on your country of residence. For example, the United States occupies a lower place than Kazakhstan in terms of the number of women in parliament and teenage pregnancies. Equal pay has increased there since 1979 and currently stands at 79% compared to men. Unfortunately, the participation of women in the labor market has fallen in recent years to 46% and in the coming years will remain at this level. In the United States, the situation of women is extremely complex. The chances of career usually depend on the place of birth and social status. The worst country for women has been recognized Niger. (According to the Girls’ Opportunity Index). 76% of women out there getting married before age 18. The problem also exists in Australia – 69% of women said they felt sexually inequality – although at the same time says he is in a better position than their mothers (The Guardian, 2016). In addition, to earn the same amount as men, women must work there on average 66 days more in a year. The difficult situation also applies to women in Afghanistan. Girls often finish education when they enter puberty. Parents are reluctant to send their daughters to school with boys There is a real danger for women who want to continue education. There are also no female teachers, which in the country when a girl can not be taught by men is a huge problem. Unfortunately, only 18% of women between 18-24 years of age can read.
By gender inequality and discrimination against women economy loses only. Profits would have been much greater if women had equal opportunities to learn and advance. Governments are trying to solve this problem. Unfortunately, according to the World Economic Forum report may take up to 170 women were granted full rights. The good news is that the problem is still publicized. Many public take part in the fight for equal rights for women.
By: Karolina Banaś
- The Guardian, (2016). The global crisis of gender inequality – and America’s shameful secret. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty-matters/2016/oct/18/gender-inequality-us-america-international-day-of-the-girl-poverty-matters. [Accessed 20 Nov. 2016].
- International Labour Organization. Gender Inequality and Women in the US Labor Force Available at: http://www.ilo.org/washington/areas/gender-equality-in-the-workplace/WCMS_159496/lang–en/index.htm. [Accessed 21 Nov. 2016].
- Listverse. 10 Extreme Examples of Gender Inequality. Available at: http://listverse.com/2008/11/20/10-extreme-examples-of-gender-inequality/. [Accessed 20 Nov. 2016]
- Human Development Reports. Gender Inequality Index (GII). Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/gender-inequality-index-gii. [Accessed 19 Nov. 2016]
- The Huffington Post. For U.S. Women, Inequality Takes Many Forms. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ariel-smilowitz/for-us-women-inequality-takes-many-forms_b_7064348.html. [Accessed 21 Nov. 2016]
- A. E. Towns (2010) Women and States (Cambridge University Press).