According to UNWHO the climate change has affected the social and environmental determinants of heat ,clean air, safe drinking water, sufficient food and secure shelter, also in between 2030 and 2050, climate change is expected to cause approximately 250 000 additional deaths per year from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhoea and heat stress. Hence, the direct damage costs to health will determine sectors such as agricultural, water and sanitations, it’s estimated to be between US$ 2-4 billion/year by 2030.
Thus, the developing countries will be the mostly disturb because of weak infrastructures to cope without outside assistance to prepare and respond to any calamity. For example, the Netherland is protected against flooding and coastal erosion by natural dunes, dikes, dames and storm surge barriers, to install these defence mechanisms one has to accumulate massive infrastructure and electricity. Recently, India minister of environment said “The world has exploited and profited from their emissions and now they cannot put restrictions on me, so there has to be a justice…So we want just an equitable agreement in Paris 2015”.
Developing countries argues, the western world have built sophisticated infrastructure which has started the era of industrialization of agricultural production and technological innovation, followed by the era political and moral enlightenment were the core principles was to create an equal society that upholds personal liberty and capitalist society, to achieve these aspiration they have versioned to established effective institutions that protects these norms and values. Thus, without hesitation the above economic realisations have laydown the social prosperity that many westerns countries are enjoying to some extent with minimum consideration of emissions that have environmental impact. In contemporary, these alterations in western countries has colossal influence the unindustrialized countries to pursue economic sufficiency and to build viable economic growth they have to fellow the economic capitalist model that has been sated by Western, infrastructure is starting point which requires a massive electricity to build and sustain it.
Therefore, after the colonial power left many East Asian countries there have witnessed unprecedented scale economic development. At the heart of this transformation has based on the integration to globalizing capitalist economy, initially during the colonial era, but with greater momentum in post-colonial times. Yet such integration has not taken place naturally but rather, has been linked to political processes that prompted south-East Asia’s emergence as one of the key natural resource regions in the world. With large scale environmental change Social and economic transformation was accompanied by environmental mutation: changes in forest cover and type, the extension of agricultural production, deteriorating soil condition and increasing levels of pollution. Prior to 1850 much of south East Asia was covered in forest, but hundred years later, large swathes of low-lying forest had already been cleared. This process was partly a respond to the rapidly growing imperial and indigenous demand for timber for housing, government buildings, bridges, boats fuel and railway sleepers. However, by far the main impetus for widespread deforestation was permanent agricultural, with cleared land being used to produce such cash crops as coffee , tea, rubber, sago, palm oil , rice, abaca and sugar cane etc Parnwell & Bryant 1996. Therefore, if the western world and developing countries particularly the East Asian states want to continue the growth of economic sufficiency through the regions desires, they have to agree equitable settlement which balances the natural world and the urbanisation. In addition to that, adopting a viable environmental policies which everybody is accountable.
- Michael . J. G. Parnwell and Raymond L . Bryant 1996 [ Environmental change in South Asia , people , politics and sustainable development ] published :ROUTLEDGE, LONDON
- Stephan Graham and Simon Marvin 1996( telecommunication and city electronic spaces, urban places) published: London
- World Health Organization 2015, Climate change and Health, <http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs266/en/> accessed; 30/o9/15