gender-pay-gap
Historically speaking, women relatively have been in disadvantageous situations in many dimensions such as economically, culturally and socially compared to men because of historical reasons. Particularly, in the wartime, women suffer. However, even after the war, it still remains in the modern world. Especially, in the economy, women are forced to be in an inferior position than men. According to a research held by International Labour Organization, at the world level, women on average earn two-thirds of what men earn even though they work longer than men. (ILO) In developed countries, it is remarkable and there is the same issue in the UK as well.

In the UK, what women can earn for a full time job in one hour is 9.4% less than what men do. In other words, women can earn £1.30 less than men do per an hour. However, it cannot always apply for any ages and social classes. (BBC, 24 September 2016) It depends on what kind of job they have or how old they are to decide the gap. Among some professions, one having the most remarkable gap is health care. In the industry, on average whilst women can earn £24,000, the money that men can earn in the same position to women is £28,000. However, there are some industries that mostly there is no gender pay gap which are medicine, dentistry, engineering and technology. When it comes to gender pay gap among women in different ages, young women have a relatively smaller gap than women born earlier. The older women are, the bigger pay gap women have. (Richard, 2016) People could say in the decade, negative situations among women have been improved little by little.

According to a research, the hourly gender pay gap between men and women has been decreased in approximately 8 percent from 1997 to 2015. One of the reasons why the pay gap has been become slightly close is that women started to fulfill something required by the society such as higher education. In other words, the number of women who enter university has been increasing during that time. It makes easier for women to get a better job. However, a research showed that even at the same time both gender start to work after graduation, there is a pay gap between them. Men tend to be paid more than women. (Richard, 2016) Although the working situations of women have been improving little by little and the gender pay gap has been close, a research showed it takes more time to get rid of the pay gap between women and men in the UK. According to the research, the gender pay gap will have remained until 2069. (BBC, 24 September 2016)

Then, people should focus on the reasons why women are suffering from the inequalities. Socially, women are expected to do housework even if they work at the outside of home and some people believe that women are good at treating things sensitively and kindly so, they are engaged with caring professions such as nursing, sawing, and social services. One of the reasons why women are regarded as people like that can be traced back to the era around the industrial revolution in Europe. After the revolution, a relation between men and women have polarized, domestic and outside. Because of the industrial revolution, men were needed to work at factories whilst women were left at a domestic sphere, which resulted in giving a different role to men and women each other. Since then, men have been regarded as a “breadwinner”, on the other hand, women as a “housewife”. Because of the structure produced at that time, even now people naturally consider women are domestic existences. Also, people regard housework as not actual labour but just an obligation according to their role. That is why, women are forced to have double burden. (John, 2014)

After all, the situation that women are forced to be drove into disadvantageous positions in the society all over the world still remains although it has been improved step by step. women are in relatively negative situations compared to men, which is true. However, it cannot always apply for every woman. Women relatively well educated tend to get a better job and salary. Recently, the pay gap between men and women has become close because more women tend to enter university, which makes it possible that they are in a better position in the society. However, according to a research, it takes approximately over 50 years to get rid of the gender pay gap in the UK. In order to solve this problem, firstly people should know about what causes of the pay gap between both gender, men and women, are such as a stereotype that women should do house work.

By Rita Furutani

Bibliography

BBC, 24 September 2016, Gender pay gap to remain until 2069, report says
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-37460778 (Accessed: 26 November 2016).

BBC, 12 February 2016, Firms forced to reveal gender pay gap
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-35553573 (Accessed: 26 November 2016).

Richard Braham 23 Aug 2016, Do women earn less than men in the UK?
https://fullfact.org/economy/UK_gender_pay_gap/ (Accessed: 26 November 2016).

Emily Peck, 24 March 2016, The Main Reason Women Make Less Money Than Men
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/women-paid-less-men_us_56f16a22e4b03a640a6bbdc6 (Accessed: 26 November 2016).

John Baylis, Steve Smith, Patricia Owens. 2014, The Globalization of International Politics, Oxford University Press

International Labour Organization “Facts on Women at Work”, Available at: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—dgreports/—dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_067595.pdf

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