Effects of Migration on Development

Effects of Migration on Development

Migration is currently at the centre of disagreement between developed receiving countries and sending developing countries (Sharma, 2012). According to the  United Nation’s Department and Social Population Division, remittances, accumulation of human capital, economic growth and investment opportunities are few of the gains. On the other hand, there are complex challenges such as brain drain, human rights issues, labour shortages, unemployment, multiculturalism, integration, terrorism, coupled with asylum seekers and flow of refugees (MPI, 2016). The Institute indicated that asylum seekers in Europe in the year 2015 was 1 million and again in 2016 (MPI, 2016).

The aim of this piece of writing is to examine how migration of young adults impact development.  The first section will focus on how such migration can cause ageing population and labour shortages on development.  The second section will look at brain drain of skilled workers on growth and development. The last part will conclude and recommend on how best to mitigate such exoduses.

Youth Migrants Vrs Ageing Population

Many  young adults take huge risks to Europe and other continents in search of better life (Adesina 2017). To Adesina, the President of the African Development Bank (ADB),  the youth are a valuable resource to the development of Africa. As per a report by the African Union, the 35% of the continent’s population of 1.03 billion, the under 35 are a valuable resource. Meanwhile, unemployment force the youth to migrate causing shortage of labour and a shrinking share of youth in Africa. This leads to wages rise leading to inflation (Economichelp 2016).  The Oxford Review of Economic Policy indicates that the number of individuals over 80 years is projected to rise from 1% to 4% by 2050 due to factors like declining fertility rate of which Africa is  (Oxford Academic 2010). The youth is the working age according to the editorial page of the Publisher (2015) as they serve as a catalyst to the development of the economic and social. environment as they are future leaders, creators, innovators etc. As such Africa’s youth migration needs a second look as the working age matter in support of the ageing age.

Brain Drain and Development

Brain Drain is harmful to development as it creates limited collection of skilled and qualified individuals (LSE, 2016). The magnitude of Africa’s brain drain into developed nation’s has impacted development as the continent has lost 1/3 of human capital and still losing skilled  workers. The report indicates that out of every 9 migrants, 1 has tertiary education. This comprises nurses, doctors, teachers, technicians, lawyers, engineers, professors and others always moving out (UN 2013). This prompted the former South African President, Thabo Mbeki to describe it as ‘frightening’ (LSE 2016). Using the South Africa medical pool becoming scarce as an example, Breier (2008) said South Africa now source doctors from Zambian and Cuba as its own health professionals have left for greener pastures (Breier, 2008). According to Berbelogou (2002), the nature of work and labour process has impacted the economy of Africa as the strength of a nation is determined by its people (Berbelogou 2002), (LSE 2016).

Conclusion and Recommendation

In conclusion, youth migration presents myriad advantages and disadvantages to home and host countries. On the other hand, labour shortages and brain drain of skilled workers impact on the development of the sourcing country. Therefore, youth employment and restiveness, technological advancement, proper educational systems should be tackled as failure of such, will impact the development of Africa.



African Association for Public Administration and Management (AAPAM), (2005), ‘Harnessing The Partnership of the Public and Non-State Sectors for Sustainable Development and Good Governance in Africa’ , Zambia, December, 5th -9th Available @: http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/AAPAM Accessed: 10.11.2017. Berbelogou B., (2002), Labour and Capital in the Age of Globalisation: The Labour Process and the Changing Nature of Work in the Global Economy, Rowman and Littlefield, Oxford. Bloom E. D, Canning David and Fink Gunther (2010), Implications of Population Ageing for Economic Growth, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Volume 26, Issue 4, 1 December 2010, Pp.583-592, https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/grq038 Driessen H., ‘The New Immigration and the Transformation of European-African Frontier’, n.d. Cambridge University Press, UK, Google Scholar Katseli T. Louka (2006), Effects of Migration on Sending Countries: What Do We Know? Italy: OECD Development Centre, Available @: http://www.un.org/esa/population/migration/turin/Symposium_Turin_files/P11_Katseli.pdf Accessed: 06.11.2017 Migration Policy Institute (2016), Moving Europe Beyond Crisis, Washington DC, Available: https://www.migrationpolicy.org/programs/moving-europe-beyond-crisis?gclid Accessed: 11.12.2017 Min-Harris C., (n.d.), Youth Migration and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: Empowering the Rural Youth Pettinger T., (2016), Labour Market and Society, July 20 Available @ https://www.economicshelp.org/blog/8950/society/impact-ageing-population-economy/, Accessed: 11.12.2017 Sharma R, Teachers on the Move (2012), Volume 17, Pp. 262-283 Available @ http://journals.sagepub.com.ezproxy.mdx.ac.uk/doi/full/ Accessed: 01.12.2017 UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2013), International Youth Day: Focus on Rights and Potential of Young Migrants, New York, USA. United Nations (2013), International Youth: Focus on Rights and Potential of Youth Migrants, New York, USA. Available @: http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/news/population/marking-youth-day.html Accessed: 10.12.2017

Beatrice Adutwim



Has labour transitioned or expanded in the modern era in global political economy? By Arlind krasniqi

Labour, the means of work, physical work especially, is a major issue in global political economy today, as in the modern world, we see different types of working environments that enable people to have more opportunities. However, because poverty is still prevalent everywhere, we still see the reasons to why people work different types of labours, or to why people cannot work. Depending on different political systems, some people may not even have the right to work, and this, once again, reinforces labour as a major issue in global political economy today.

In GPE, it is important to consider the concept of labour on a global scale. How labour impacts states globally in several areas, such as global production. Global production is essential to how labour operates in GPE. Pijl (2015) claimed that the ‘turn toward global production … has been impressive.’ Pijl also referenced UNCTAD, where they stated in 2010 that ‘the top one hundred global corporations had shifted their production … to their foreign affiliates.’ Demonstrating that global production has increased, which only naturally increases more vacancies for labour. Ravenhill (2017) reinforced Pijl’s argument by stating that even though global production is ‘not new’, it is its ‘magnitude’ and the ‘degree’ in ‘global … chains’ that is ‘new’. Illustrating that the increase global production, especially with the rise of modern technology has created access to more and new types of labour, such as controlling surveillance, office work, and research in sciences etc. So, in order to maintain order in the wide field of labour, global production must operate in a diverse efficient manner. Hence, why it is an urgent issue.

However, even though there has been an increase in labour, in terms of global economy, we must also evaluate who has the right to work and not to work. Even though the field of labour has expanded, and is still currently expanding as we continue to modernise, this still gives leverage for people to hire ‘cheap labour’, as people, who can either be, a migrant, unskilled, or simply not qualified to work, can work different types of labour, from a pure physical manner, as it is easier for the employer and the employee. Richard Appelbaum (2016) stated that the ‘labor rights, and labor-relations systems of Chinese workers have a tremendous impact on the global economy.’ implying that, the field of labour has expanded in China, by even giving access to all forms of labour to those who are even disadvantaged with rights to work. This is also one of the reasons why China is regarded as such a global economic power. Appelbaum’s argument had been covered by Flanagan (2006), who claimed that ‘estimates of the impact of immigrants on the wages of native workers varied widely.’ Through the rise of immigration, the forces of labour has become just as compact as it has expanded, the right to work has become distorted through the increase of immigration that had led to an increase in a states’s economy.

Furthermore, if we talk about labour within the scope of GPE, we must discuss the concept of ‘employed’.  The typical Google definition will state that ‘employed’ means to ‘give work to someone and pay them for it.’ In terms of global economy however, the concept of employed regards more of the services within the workforce, rather than the type of labours in the industries. As claimed by the Canadian Association of Geographers (1996) who stated that even though ‘certain authors have employed a broad definition’ which includes elements such as ‘public utility services’ there is no ‘absolute definition’ as it has become distorted in the field of global political economy. For instance, Carola Frege (2013) claimed that ‘The … distribution of employment by economic sector has … declined’ in ‘manufacturing industries’ due to the ‘rise of services.’ Meaning that, the employment sector has transitioned from a rise of manufacturers to a rise in services. Also, meaning that the room for types of labour has transitioned. Thus the conversion of labour forces in the global economy.


Overall, labour is a major issue in global political economy today, because, as the world has expanded in terms of pure modernisation, i.e. easier trading regulations via globalisation, rise of technology and the rise of global production, then the labour force has also expanded, however, enabled more distortion in who has the right to work, immigration issues, and the types of work. Hence why it is an urgent issue in global political economy today.


Carola F., J. K., 2013. Comparative Employment Relations in the Global Economy. s.l.:Routledge.

Flanagan, R. J., 2006. Globalization and Labor Conditions: Working Conditions and Worker RIghts in a Global Economy. s.l.:s.n.

Geographers, C. A. o., 1996. Canada and the Global Economy: The Geography of Structural and Technological Change. s.l.:McGill-Queen’s Press.

Mantouvalou, V., 2015. The Right to Work: Legal and Philosophical Perspectives. s.l.:Bloomsbury Publishing .

Pijl, K. v. d., 2015. Handbook of the International Political Economy of Production. s.l.:s.n.

Ravenhill, J., 2017. Global Political Economy. s.l.:Oxford University Press.

Richard Appelbaum, N. L., 2016. Achieving Workers’ Rights in the Global Economy. s.l.:s.n.




Is Trump’s Make America Great Again International Relation Strategy, a one-way-ticket to Global Political Chaos?

Is Trump’s Make America Great Again International Relation Strategy, a one-way-ticket to Global Political Chaos? President Trump’s Foreign Affairs is jam-packed with controversy and several public undiplomatic utterances about other World leaders. This method is certainly not the continuation of Trump’s predecessor’s Foreign Affairs policy. So far, Trump’s political ideology has been classified by many Political Analyst Globally as Nationalist, Protectionist, Isolationist, and Populism. Nobody expect him to unilaterally declare that U.S would recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and start the process of the moving American Embassy there. Nor did anyone expect this U.S President to reverse Obama’s Presidential Policy Directive to Normalised International Relation with Cuba and or Imagining him to call the North Korea leader “Dotard or Rocket Man”.  To put it Simply, Trump’s Presidential Policy Directive issued since elected are contrary to Some of the U.S Republican party and Democrats Foreign Affairs strategy on Cuba etc. The U.S president has even blamed Cuba for the 22 American government workers injured on Cuban soil without any evidence to substantiate his assertions. Whilst the U.S State department are yet to identify the culprit and the mysterious weapon in this regard.   https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/oct/03/us-orders-cuban-diplomats-leave-washington-embassy-sonic-attacks

All of the aforementioned actions by the current U.S President, is like going over an old wound, as oppose to moving forward. This two countries history regarding trusting each another is at the all time low but they are both considered under the Monroe doctrine as neighbours. Trump’s is going back in-time, particularly, recalling the avoidance Nuclear War of October 1962, during his election campaign, when the U.S uncovered the Soviet Union Nuclear missiles installed in Cuba, merely 90 miles off the coast of the United States in height of the Cold War. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b039kv61. Now that the Cold War has ended, and President Obama has already issued a Presidential Policy Directive aiming at Normalising U.S International Relation with Cuba, which is contrary to Trump’s agenda for Cuba   https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2016/10/14/presidential-policy-directive-united-states-cuba-normalization



Just like the Obama’s Presidential Policy Directive to Normalised U.S International Relation with Cuba was rejected by Trump’s Administration. Trump’s called the North Korea leader Kim Jong-un “Dotard or Rocket Man” undiplomatic language from the so call leader of the free world. This utterance is kind off in alignment with Barbara Perry, argument that “Donald Trump has no political experience and does not recognise the political norms”.  https://millercenter.org/experts/barbara-perry . This may probably explain his lack of tactics on the world stage, which are evidence as follows https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/sep/22/rocket-man-or-dotard-who-said-what-in-the-trump-v-kim-jong-un-war-of-words

North Korea: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dq4jfpZ56eA  ;

https://www.youtube.com/69d3d4e6-916d-44b5-9b83-1da1f852e623 ;

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_hXUqDrzKsc  ;





Still, on President Trump’s 6th December 2017, announce that America would recognised Jerusalem as Israel’s capital City and the proposed commencements of relocating U.S embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. According to the EU foreign Affairs Commissioner, this action is undermining the UN peace talk, and at the same time creating chaos in the region with unhappy response from Islamic States around the Globe, “Israel occupied East Jerusalem at the end of the 1967 War with Syria, Egypt and Jordan; the western half of the holy city had been captured in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war”. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/world-middle-east-42247428/why-jerusalem-matters.  This move reversed years of U.S neutrality on the status of Jerusalem according EU Foreign Affair Officer.







http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-42278644 Tensions are high in wake of Donald Trump’s Jerusalem announcement


In conclusion: Trump’s domestic political strategy is divisive, including by-passing the Congress on some U.S internal matters. Issuing several Presidential Policy Directives whilst his foreign Affairs strategic approach is a catalyst to Global Political Chaos as illustrated within. According to Thomas wright, who argued that Trump’s Protectionist ideology has three main fundamental principles, which are; firstly, his opposition to U.S Current Alliances, Secondly, his opposition to free trade; and thirdly his support for Authoritarianism. This Authoritarian aspect is now leading U.S to forsaking the Liberal international tactics of impartiality that President Trump’s predecessors have developed and practiced since after world war II, for the rebirth of a new World Order. Thomas Wright further maintained and placed Donald J. Trump foreign policy in an ideological and historical context purely on Trump’s fundamental principles, which are contrary to the past Republican president’s International Affairs beliefs since the 1980s. https://www.brookings.edu/program/foreign-policy/


By Adebayo Adeshina – M00609152



Buncombe, Andrew. 2017. “Why Obama And Bush’s Synchronised Attacks On Trump Matter”. The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-politics/obama-bush-trump-attack-speeches-criticism-president-why-it-matters-history-a8011781.html.

Donald Trump October 30, 2017, Biography, Editors, The Famous People com, https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/donald-trump-3378.php

David Harvey (2007) ‘The Neoliberal State’ in A Brief History of Neoliberalism (Oxford University Press)

Diamond L. and Morlino L. 2004 ‘The quality of democracy: An overview’ Journal of Democracy, 15(4), pp.20-31. http://www.uni-klu.ac.at/wiho/downloads/QoD-text_03.pdf.

Diamond L. (2015) ‘Facing up to the democratic recession’ Journal of Democracy 26(1): 141-155.

Diamond L. and Morlino L. 2004  ‘The quality of democracy: An overview’ Journal of Democracy, 15(4), pp.20-31. http://www.uni-klu.ac.at/wiho/downloads/QoD-text_03.pdf.

Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index 2015 http://www.yabiladi.com/img/content/EIU-Democracy-Index-2015.pdf

Obama B (2016) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=72bHop6AIcc


McRae, Hamish. 2017. “Donald Trump Vowed To ‘Make America Great Again’ – And Bombardier Shows He Doesn’t Care Who He Tramples On To Make That Happen”. The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/bombardier-boeing-donald-trump-maga-us-american-jobs-free-trade-protectionism-a7970096.html.

Perry, Barbara. 2017. http://Barbara Perry, director of presidential studies University of Virginia’s Miller Centre.

Schawb K (2015), The Fourth Industrial Revolution, Foreign Affairs, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2015-12-12/fourth-industrial-revolution

Robert 0. Keohane, “Reciprocity in International Relations,” International Organization, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Winter 1986), pp. 1-27.

Aldana Alsaud M00610352

China’s Economic Miracle

china-economy.jpgChina’s economic development, from its withered state post-WW2, has been nothing but miraculous. Where there had been a destroyed country, now stands the world’s biggest economic superpower, all in less than a century. An even bigger achievement of China, complementing its growing economic prosperity, is its focus on human development. A country that used to hold the world’s largest share of the poor and the illiterate has transformed, collectively, into one that is actively reducing poverty. The tools at hand are education, occupational training, social welfare programmes, labour pools, and relocation.

Since the late 1970s, the Chinese government has lifted more than 700 million people from the shackles of poverty, through relocating them closer to cities and developing areas, providing free education and occupational training, and helping them get well-paying jobs that enable a sustainable and progressive lifestyle (Pinghui, 2017; Huang & Lahiri, 2017). Literacy rates have been climbing as well, growing at an average pace of 10% a year. In the 1980s, only 65% of the Chinese population could read or write. In 2016, more than 95% of the population was literate, leaving only a few years before China tackles the Western average of 100% (UNICEF, n.d.; Coughlan, 2017). From an economic lens, China’s GDP per-capita (per 1,000 people) has also increased phenomenally, from a mere $162 USD in 1962 (when U.S. GDP per-capita was $3,243) to $6894 in 2016 (TradingEconomics, n.d.). Although still far less than Western standards, China’s per-capita GDP is expected to continue growing at a fast rate for the foreseeable future. As this volume increases, the people’s necessary and expendable income rises as well.As it appears, China’s form of governance, although questionable in many regards, is indeed geared towards helping the people. The government plans to ‘eradicate’ poverty by 2020, a goal similar in spirit to the UAE’s Vision 2021, but at a much grander and powerful scale. This achievement, complemented with rapid economic growth and infrastructure development, shows that China, on the long-term trajectory is all set to assume the mantle of a global superpower. In doing so, China also tackles a large array of globally significant issues; poverty, healthcare, education, social development and much more. Appropriately, one can expect the world’s socio-political climate to have China in central attention.

However, in midst of all this growth and prosperity, has China pause for a moment to think what serious damages it has inflicted to its natural environment? Why is the country so centered on growth and development that it forgot to care about where they live? According to environmental statistics, China holds 20 of the world’s top 30 most-polluted cities (Times Magazine, 2007). Pollution and carbon emissions in Chinese cities and townships is so severe that only less than 1% of the urban population has access to ‘clean’ air (New York Times, 2007).

The problem is not limited to air pollution. According to the China government survey, more than 42% of the country’s rivers have been polluted to the point that they are no longer safe for human contact (The Economist, 2010). Rapid and unregulated industrialization has allowed corrupt businesses to dump wastes and chemicals into the rivers to save money. This pollution, has in turn, led to a severe reduction in wildlife along river banks. Even worse, more than one-third of river fishes in China’s ‘Yellow River’ have already gone extinct (Asia Water Project, 2007). As these polluted rivers are the only source of drinking water, more than 300 million Chinese nationals are vulnerable to polluted and poisonous drinking water (World Bank, 2009). There is no reset button either, because at current expansion rates, it is estimated that China will have exploited all of its potential fresh water sources (Asia Water Project, 2007).

So, what happens now? Was it worth it race the world for the mantle of superpower, only to destroy your own home in the process? What will happen when all of China’s natural resources are polluted or dried out? Was it worth it? We don’t know, and it is certain that China does not know either.



Asia Water Project. (2007). China says water supplies exploited by 2030. Beijing Reuters.


Asia Water Project. (2007). The Great Leap Backwards? The Costs of China’s Environmental Crisis,. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from “” Foreign Affairs Sept-Oct 2007


Coughlan, S. (2017). How China became an education superpower. Retrieved December 2017, from http://www.bbc.com/news/business-40708421


Huang, Z., & Lahiri, T. (2017, September). China’s path out of poverty can never be repeated at scale by a country again. Retrieved December 2017, from https://qz.com/1136533/a-radical-startup-has-invented-the-worlds-first-zero-emissions-fossil-fuel-power-plant/


New York Times. (2007). As China Roars, Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/26/world/asia/26china.html


Pinghui, Z. (2017, September). Five things to know about China’s huge anti-poverty drive. Retrieved December 2017, from http://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/2109848/five-things-know-about-chinas-huge-anti-poverty-drive


The Economist. (2010). Raising a Stink. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/node/16744110


Times Magazine. (2007). World Bank Report, The World’s Most Polluted Places. Times Magazine. Retrieved from The World Bank; Time Magazine “The World’s Most Polluted Places” Sept. 12, 2007


TradingEconomics. (n.d.). China GDP per-capita. Retrieved December 2017, from https://tradingeconomics.com/china/gdp-per-capita


UNICEF. (n.d.). China Statistics. Retrieved December 2017, from https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/china_statistics.html


World Bank. (2009). Addressing China’s Water Scarcity: Recommendations for Selected Water Resource Management Issues. World Bank.




The Feminisation of Poverty

Poverty effects women the most – fact.

Image result for the feminisation of poverty

The United Nations’ Millennium Declaration marked a momentous occasion in the struggle for both gender equality and the eradication of poverty; as a key objective, the UN will look to ‘promote gender equality and the empowerment of women as an effective way to combat poverty, hunger, disease and to stimulate development that is truly sustainable’ (UN, 2000).

But what was so special about, yet another, UN objective? This particular goal represented a global consensus on the long-standing link between women and poverty. What was once seen as a here-say common conception suddenly had real, political, weight seen as an undeniable reality. Following such consensus the Sustainable Development Goals have continued the message on this issue (UN, 2016)

Why was this so important to establish?

In this context, the ‘feminisation of poverty’ refers specifically to the notion of women experiencing poverty at a disproportionally high rate in comparison to male counterparts (Abbate, 2010). The prevalence of women below the poverty line is no coincidence, nor is it just an issue just for the women themselves; it must be distinguished in order for it to be addressed and to avoid further perpetuation.

What factors can we hold accountable for such failings?

Although they are not exhaustive, three alternate reasonings have been given prominence in political-literature as to why feminisation is so apparent in poverty (Moghadam, 2005):

Firstly, the continued existence of intra-household inequalities and systematic bias against women and girls. The unequal access opportunities for healthcare, education and nutrition all negatively impact the potential employment and income-generating ability of women; this coupled with the continuing systemic discrimination in households and existing patriarchal structures paint a bleak picture. Continuation exacerbates vulnerability and undoubtedly contributes to the feminisation of poverty (O’Brien & Williams, 2016).

Image result for The Feminisation of Poverty

The increase in female-headed families is another long-term cause of poverty. In Western states divorce has become the norm which leaves many women as the sole-provider of the household with no second supplementary-income as in nuclear families. In less-economically developed countries families have this life forced upon them due to conflict or other external factors. The importance of a stable home-life structure on the future development of children is widely acknowledged. Not only does poverty take place most often in these families but the likelihood remains that cycles will continue to rotate as a result.

A considerable amount of research has also taken place focussing on the negative impacts of Neoliberal economic policy. Nagar et al (2002), for example, discussed the way in which the burdens of restructuring policies were bourn by women as a result of their reliance upon unpaid labour. The movement of globalisation has also been mentioned to have adverse effects due to its failure to account for women’s role (Library Index, 2017).

What changes can be made?

At ground-level we, as human-beings, must do our upmost in order to give substance to women’s right for self-fulfilment and determination (Marchand, 2003). In any way that we can we must enable women the genuine opportunities to engage fully in economic and social life without the burden of expectation or presumption.

More importantly, governments must re-think both implemented policies and current-standing institutions in order to value women in all contexts. Buvinic (1998), for example, recommends multiple ways in which progress can be made including: expanding substantially the access of poor women to family-planning and reproductive health services, adopting education reform agendas, building incentives for the private sector to expand women’s access and many more. States simply must take action.

What impact does this have on deeply engrained assumptions on gender?

Fast forward seventeen years from the UN’s 2000 Declaration and one still observes the same issues at hand. Despite historical gains for women in terms of more formal equality (right to be educated, to vote and to own property) there has been a distinct lack of progress towards substantive equality for women (Galloway, 2014).

The older generation are not alone and are also not the last in experiencing feminised poverty. Continuous exposure to such atrocity confines women to second-class status, denying them progressive liberty and perpetuating the standard stereotypes/assumptions made of them.

How can we ever hope to eradicate sexism, let alone poverty, if we are unable to make progress with policy?


Written by Paul Hudson (M00611200)

International Politics, Economics and Law student at Middlesex University.



Abbate, L. (2010). Feminized Poverty Worldwide. Available: https://www.mtholyoke.edu/~abbat22l/classweb/feminizationofpoverty/worldwide.html. Last accessed 25th Nov 2017.

Buvinic, M. (1998). Women in Poverty: A New Global Underclass.Available: http://www.onlinewomeninpolitics.org/beijing12/womeninpoverty.pdf. Last accessed 1st Dec 2017.

Galloway, K. (2014). Ending feminised poverty. Available: http://fwsablog.org.uk/2014/10/13/ending-feminised-poverty/. Last accessed 29th Nov 2017

Library Index. (2017). Women and Children in Poverty – The Feminization Of Poverty. Available: https://www.libraryindex.com/pages/2687/Women-Children-in-Poverty-FEMINIZATION-POVERTY.html. Last accessed 5th Dec 2017.

Marchand, M. (2003). ‘Challenging Globalisation: Feminism and Resistance’, Review of International Studies 29 (3). 145-60.

Moghadam, V. M. (2005) ‘The Feminisation of Poverty’ and Women’s Humar Rights, SHS Papers in Women’s Studies / Gender Research 2 (Paris: UNESCO).

Nagar, R et al. (2002). ‘Locating Globalization: Feminist (Re)Readings of the Subject and Spaces of Globalization‘, Economic Geography, 78(3): 57-84

O’Brien, R & Williams, M. (2016). Gender. Global Political Economy: Evolution and Dynamics. 5th ed. London: Palgrave. 210-216.

United Nations. (2000). United Nations Millennium Declaration. Available: http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm. Last accessed 25th Nov 2017.

United Nations. (2016). Sustainable Development Goals. Available: http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals.html. Last accessed 12th Dec 2017.

They want WAR: The truth behind conflict

*Please note in the film’s promotional poster it states “Based on a true story”*

Not long ago, on a Friday night, I scrolled through the comedy genre of movies on my laptop and came across ‘War Dogs’. Instantly, it drew my attention. I hastened to watch the trailer and it seemed like a very entertaining movie. It was – until I realised what I had just watched. I watched a comedic version of our reality. In the movie, two young friends in their twenties living by Miami Beach during the Iraq war are becoming international arms dealers for some extra cash.  They go on crazy adventures and the movie overall was very exciting. But it also showed us the dark side of the arms industry. Deaths, destruction and devastation – It meant nothing to the arms dealers. The boys got the opportunity for one of the deals to sell weapons to the US government that they would use to kill and would make the friends 300 million dollars.  300 MILLION DOLLARS.

Sometimes we sit and think to ourselves, considering the fact that tax payers money that you and I pay subsidises the arms industry (YouGov, 2014) –  ‘why are there still wars and bloody conflicts and how does war benefit anybody?’ It’s not always disputes between a few nations that lead to a very long lasting war. There are many different reasons why wars happen. It could be anything from the fight for oil, religious based wars, ‘humanitarian intervention’ occupations and invasions etc. Globally, views on why we have war and what causes it differ. We have fascists, who always advocate for war and think it is a virtuous activity. We also have what’s known as pacifism, which is a position some religious or green parties maintain and believe war is never justified. Realists, Pluralist Liberals and Marxists believe that war can sometimes be justified. Overall, opinions vary greatly. But the sickening part is when killing people is justified with the fact that the arms industry prospers including businesses and even governments benefit financially from causing deaths and demolition.

The importance of the arms industry and arms companies goes as far as them being able to impact security and defence policies (Calvo Rufanges, 2015). There have been many occasions whereby the pronounced British foreign policy was completely different to the actual practice and the actions the British government was taking. For instance, the arms company in the 1990’s by the name of ‘Matrix Churchill’, a Coventry based engineering firm. Following the Kuwait war, this firm was selling military hardware to the Iraqi government. However, at that time there was a boycott on selling to the Iraqi government. This led to the firm being taken to court and what became apparent was that members of and directors of the firm were themselves in the pay of British intelligence services (Phythian and Little, 1993). This shows that there is a real lack of cognisance on British current foreign policy and arms deals in general by the public. The neoliberal era has shown that nothing is too valuable to sacrifice at the crucible of short term accumulation of capital and the march of industry is considered to be far more important than anything else (Hall, Massey and Rustin, 2015).

A contemporary debate regarding the issue of the arms industry is the UK selling arms to Saudi Arabia. The same weapons the UK sells to the barbaric kingdom of Saudi Arabia are being used in an inhumane war crime against Yemen. We are selling them weapons to, [according to the prime minister], have even more influence on human rights and to boost ties (Independent 2017)  – but like many cases in the past, this is just another method of gaining profits.

This film reminded me about our reality and how a neoliberal system prefers profits over everything even if it costs us lives. A film that was supposed to be enjoyable and take my mind of the filth, greed and deaths in the world only saddened me more. Next time, I might consider watching a movie that is not ‘based on a true story’.


Noor Fekri


Calvo Rufanges, J. (2015). The Arms Industry Lobby in Europe. American Behavioral Scientist, 60(3), pp.305-320.
PHYTHIAN, M. and LITTLE, W. (1993). Parliament and Arms Sales: Lessons of the Matrix Churchill Affair. Parliamentary Affairs, 46(3), pp.293-308.
(YouGov, 2014) https://yougov.co.uk/news/2014/11/09/public-attitudes-tax-distribution/
(Independent, 2017) http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/brexit-saudi-arabia-theresa-may-allies-liam-fox-trades-deals-europe-beware-a7664741.html
Hall, S., Massey, D. and Rustin, M. (2015). After Neoliberalism?. London: Lawrence and Wishart Ltd.

The Hardest WORK in the World is being out of WORK ‘‘Graduates with BA Degree in 5 years, unemployed since 10 years.’

Unemployment is the number of people who that do not have a job, and this is a major issue across the globe, both developed and developing countries. It’s too difficult to understand high unemployment rates in developed countries that have a high GDP, for example, in 2016, Spain was ranked 14th on GDP scale, and its unemployment rate was 17%. Today, it remains the same (Statisticstimes.com, 2017).

The youth possess degrees, but do not have jobs. This is why today we see high rates of homeless people around developed countries, such as in the United Kingdom, where approximately more than 150,000 young people, every year, end up in the streets seeking jobs for many years (Centrepoint, 2017).

The most important disadvantage is that unemployed youth may be discouraged from searching for a job, eventually they end up losing hope, and that in turn pushes them into poverty and crimes such as the; drug dealing, joining terrorist groups, smuggling, murder, and kidnapping etc.

In addition, youth involvement helps drive positive social change, including structures, policies and procedures that are demand-driven to address the health needs of their communities and countries, now and in the future of the country. Unfortunately today we see a massive population of youth who are unemployed. According to The International Labour Organisation (2017) there are approximately more than 75 million young people between ages of 18-25 years old looking for jobs around the world.

On the other hand, in 2015, in the European Union consisted of 5.2 million unemployed people. One in four young people are without a job. But the number rose to more than 50 percent in countries such as Spain and Greece (The scandal of youth unemployment: The choice of a new generation, 2014).

If these people can get hired, they will make massive positive changes in society, because they are well educated.

unemployment 1(Ackaah-Kwarteng, 2016)

The reasons for high unemployment rate are mainly down to the government. In most developed countries the government does not provide the average person with opportunities to find a job, unless this person has high qualifications. If an individual with low standard level of qualification, he/she is excluded in the employment market.

The education system, especially the public system schools and universities are run by government. In that case, the schools should have a service in place that teaches students how to get employed. Additionally, opportunities should be provided to the students to find a job they desire.

Another reason for high unemployment would be down to the economy state of the country. If a country has low consumers in the market, people are going to lose their jobs due to redundancy, and that raises unemployment rates.  In combination if a country has high unemployment rates, coupled with low GDP that will mean that the education system is heavily relied upon.  So that will mean education system and employment rates go hand in hand, if one is good the other one is good (Chen, 2014).

unemployment(CNN, 2017)



Ackaah-Kwarteng, K. (2016). unemployed. [image] Available at: http://3news.com/notes-from-the-ghanaman-file-employed-unemployed-or-under-employed/ [Accessed 9 Dec. 2017].

Centrepoint. (2017). The Issue of youth homelessness in the UK. [online] Available at: https://centrepoint.org.uk/youth-homelessness/the-issue/ [Accessed 9 Dec. 2017].

CNN (2017). [image] Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2011/10/12/business/uk-unemployment-highest-in-17-years/index.html [Accessed 11 Dec. 2017].

F., J. (2017). Cite a Website – Cite This For Me. [online] Economist.com. Available at: https://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2013/05/economist-explains-why-youth-unemployment-so-high [Accessed 9 Dec. 2017].

Statisticstimes.com. (2017). World GDP Ranking 2016 – StatisticsTimes.com. [online] Available at: http://statisticstimes.com/economy/projected-world-gdp-ranking.php [Accessed 9 Dec. 2017].

The scandal of youth unemployment: The choice of a new generation. (2014). Directed by B. Maguire. Euranet Plus.

Chen, M. (2014). Who’s Really To Blame for Unemployment?. [online] Inthesetimes.com. Available at: http://inthesetimes.com/working/entry/16210/unemployment_is_not_driven_by_a_skills_gap_but_an_equality_gap1 [Accessed 11 Dec. 2017].

Ramazan Dostum  M00558107  Dubai-Campus


The Impact of Automation on Jobs – Should you be worried?

robot_overlordsWe are being afflicted with a new disease of which some readers may not have heard the name, but of which they will hear a great deal in the years to come – namely, technological unemployment” (Keynes, 1930) This was said by Keynes in 1930. Loss of jobs due to automation is not a new phenomenom, it has been happening since the Industrial Revolution, however nowadays we are experiencing a whole new level of technological advances. While in the past machines could only replace manual labor, now scientists are able to create machines with intellectual abilities, that are rapidly taking over jobs which were never thought to be at risk of technological unemployment.
The International Federation of Robotics found that there are about 1.75 million robots in use, as of 2015, growing to 4 to 6 million by 2025 (Acemoglu, Restrepo, 2017). Intelligent robots are being used in many different professions.
There are automated hotel receptionists that can talk different languages and check people in; robots can decrease tension through a heart monitor; tablets are being used instead of waiters in restaurants; machines replace decision-making in stock exchanges; augmented reality helps to train the military; medical devices can record and transmit vital signs, and some can also intervene directly by injecting a medicine based on the data obtained; 3D printing makes a copy of any object through specifications which can be just emailed, eliminating the need of transportation; autonomous vehicles and drones are rapidly decreasing the need of drivers. (West, 2015) This century has seen the creation of smart social robots, such as pets and humanoids, like Sophie, a robot who was recently granted the citizenship of Saudi Arabia (Griffin, 21017)
Not even careers that require a high level of education like legal professions are exempt from automation. Dr Paresh Kathrani, expert in law and artificial intelligence, participated in a conference at Middlesex University and said that he foresees the law professions will be completely changed and reduced. There are new machines that are able to find all case law and legislation necessary in less than 2 minutes, a task that takes days to a human; others which can predict the chances of success of a specific case. Soon, he says, there will be robots able to function as lawyers, barristers and even judges. Not everyone at the conference agreed to his view, saying that in this case, either people would not want to be judged by a robot, or that technology will never be so advanced to allow a machine to be an efficient judge.
What does this mean for future employment? A research by Berriman and Hawksworth predicts that around 30% of UK jobs are at risk of being automated by 2030. The sectors in danger are transportation and storage, with 1 million jobs at risk; manufacturing with 1.2 million; wholesale and retail is the most at risk, with a potential 2.3 million jobs expected to be lost to machines. One of the main reasons technology will have a great impact on these jobs is that they don’t require workers with a high level of education, as they often deal with manual or repetitive tasks and therefore, easily automatable. By contrast, the health and social work sector, which requires employees with high education, has only 0.7 million jobs at risk. (Berriman, Hawksworth, 2017)
The risk of automation depends on the industrial composition of the country. Service-dominated states such as the UK, US and Germany have similar risk percentages. A curious exception is Japan, which only has 21% of its jobs at risk of automation. The research suggests that this is because less educated workers such as retail employees spend more time on management tasks than manual and get trained at work, becoming less automatable. (Berriman, Hawksworth, 2017)
Does this mean that we are in the verge of a new era in which robots are taking over labour? The expected job losses are uncertain and might not actually happen. There are some factors which cannot be predicted just now, such as economic constraints. For example, if the cost of the machines becomes too high for firms, they will continue to hire human labour. Also, new legislation might be introduced to regulate the job losses. The best argument given by people who don’t believe automation will have a major impact on employment, is that new jobs will be created. The issue here is whether there will be enough new jobs to compensate the lost ones. The research by Berriman and Hawksworth estimated that 6% of jobs in the UK in 2013 did not exist in 1990. This percentage needs to raise significantly balance with the expected job loss. The authors’ theory is that increased productivity due to technology will generate higher incomes that will be invested and will generate demand that will, in turn, create jobs. (Berriman, Hawksworth, 2017)
Advances in technology have brought high economic growth to the countries which invest in research and automation, so they shouldn’t be seen as a disease, as suggested by Keynes. The future impact on jobs is hard to predict for sure, but it is clear that states need to make sure the workforce is enabled to acquire skills to compete with intelligent machines, and provide for the unemployed, only then can automation bring a positive change.
Elena De Nardo, M00536055

John Maynard Keynes, 1963 “Essays in Persuasion”, New York: W. W. Norton & Co.
Daron Acemoglu, Pascual Restrepo, 2017 “Robots and Jobs: evidence from US labor markets” National Bureau of Economic Research
Andrew griffin, october 2017 “Saudi Arabia grants citizenship to a robot for the first time ever” Independent, available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/saudi-arabia-robot-sophia-citizenship-android-riyadh-citizen-passport-future-a8021601.html
Darrell West 2015 “What happens if robots take the jos? The impact of emerging technologies on employment and public policy” Center for technology innovation, Brookings
Paresh Kathrani, at the conference “The future of law” at Middlesex university, on the 24th of October.
Richard Berriman, John Hawksworth 2017 “Will robots steal our jobs? The potential impact of automation on the UK and other major economies” UK Economic Outlook

Recession – How has global economy been behaving since the 2008 crisis? Part 1 (Sulema Cabral M00579784)


A notable trend since the 2008’ financial crisis has been on the public concerns, which consists on citizens being sceptical about the implementation of power being allocated to large institutions. The thoughts were that the risk assumed by those could instead jeopardize the stability of the financial system on a large scale. The month of August this year, has just marked the tenth anniversary of the onset of the global financial crisis. The crisis began with a succession of bankruptcies of financial institutions in the United States and Europe, leading to the worst global recession in decades, and years of slow growth and painful economic recession.
Back in the 1970’s, the end of the Union Soviet Socialist Republics showed the world the defeat of centralizing governments, which eventually gave way to the liberal, political and economic theories that were created from the illuminist thought of the industrial revolution made in the 18th century. In the research of an effective solution for the economic crisis that affected the world in 1973 caused by the explosive growth in the price of oil, Neoliberalism emerges as the key factor to solve this problem. Hence, it defended a set of policies that contributed for the accumulation of wealth and profit being held for only fewer hands, arguing that it would promote investment and in that way increase employment and rise prosperity for all in society. The new right argued that competition and selfishness should be the new policy adopted by society to bring benefits to all in general (Sheil 2000, 26), therefore the neoliberal ideologies were quickly embraced by big companies because they provided a legitimation for their pursuit of self-interest and avenues for business expansion (Beder 2006a, 151). Neoliberalism advocates the replacement of government functions and services with privatization, deregulation of labor and financial markets, smaller government through reduced taxes, spending and regulation and the deregulation of business activities with the purpose of promoting economic growth and defending public interest.
Fundamentally, Neoliberalism values market forces, promotes consumer society and stimulates economic competition on a global scale. It is strongly related to globalization, trough the economic and financial impositions of the rich countries to the most indebted countries, the adjustment of foreign trade and the suppression of financial imbalances. In this sense, Neoliberalism can be defined as a set of capitalist, political and economic ideas that defend the state’s non-intervention in the economy to achieve the settlement of debts, and consequently crisis. According to the neoliberal doctrine, there must always be free market, the ideology that defends total freedom of trade, as neoliberals believe this principle guarantees the economic growth and social development of a country. With all its aims and strong principles, Neoliberalism was hoped to bring solutions to poverty, however it seemed not to work as expected.


Criticism of Neoliberalism

As neoliberal policies were getting spread out around the world, disparities in wealth and income started to increase, followed by poverty. These, contradicted neoliberal theories that by increasing the wealth at the top, the society as a whole would benefit. At such point, the policies suggested by Neoliberalism started facing unexpected results. The critiques to the system claim that the neoliberal economy only benefits the major economic powers and multinational corporations. The generation of economic dependence on the poorest countries against the more developed ones becomes gradually more inevitable, and disparities in the world only became larger and more difficult to overcome. Human development models, therefore are not compatible with for example Africa, Latin America or Asia, as it has aggravated the underdevelopment and scarcity of these regions and that is why Neoliberalism is often referred as ‘Neo-colonialism’. In these countries, low wages, unemployment, the increase of social differences and dependence on international capital are pointed out as causes of neoliberalism. Neoliberalism appears to have given priority to economic goals over social goals, destroying socially beneficial traditions and desirable aspects of cultures in the process (Stilwell 1993, 36). In this range of events caused by the negative impact of Neoliberalism, it becomes perfectly clear that financial markets provide opportunities for investment without creating jobs, and that inequalities resulted by those policies, only reduced consumer demand, which in turn had to be incited by consumer credit and mortgage debt. Privatization, free trade and financial deregulation promoted by Neoliberalism, allowed financial institutions to dictate government policy, preventing it from participate in economic matters. Significantly, this has also contributed for the stagnation of economy. Deregulation was equally responsible, when it allowed the channelling of wealth into speculative investments that only made worse the volatility of share and housing markets. The conjunction of both, household debt and unregulated speculative investment then ended up in the collapse of mortgage market and share markets on a global level. It asserted that the wealth of a nation would ‘trickle down’ to the poor as it gets wealthier, since it was invested to create jobs, ending up being a failure.







Due to Neoliberalism, the deregulated system created, pretty much tended to take on more and more risk during periods of economic stability, and consequently become highly fragile leading to more frequent and aggravating financial crisis and eventually to a Great Recession. Despite those issues, the inequalities risen up by the new rights started to cause major impacts that also contributed to a more unbalanced economy on a global level. The neoliberalist ideology has done more for the capitalist than to the less privileged, where rich became richer and poor even poorer. According to Oxfam, the world’s richest 1% has now as much wealth as the rest of the 99% combined. This is a remarkable concentration of wealth that is definitely not well distributed. “The world has become a much more unequal place and the trend is accelerating”, Winnie Byanima, Oxfam International’s executive director.


Figures show that instead of an economy that works for the prosperity of all in general, for future generations and for the world, they have instead created an economy for the 1% wealthiest. It is important to implement measures to reduce the inequality, with major urgency. “We cannot continue to allow hundreds of millions of people to go hungry while resources that could be used to help them are sucked up by those at the top”, Byanima. Oxfam calls for governments to take action on lobbying, reducing the price of medicines, taxing wealth rather than consumption and using progressive public spending to tackle inequality. “What we should care about is the welfare of the poor not the wealth of the rich”, Adam Smith. As mentioned before, things seemed not to be taking the right way. With this plethora of bad news, it is not surprising that many are ready to condemn the main elements of neoliberalism to the scrapheap.


BBC News. (2017). Wealth of top 1% ‘equal to other 99%’.  Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-35339475

euronews. (2017). The richest 1% own more than 99% of world’s population.  Available at: http://www.euronews.com/2016/01/18/the-richest-1-percent-own-more-than-99-percent-of-world-s-population

Metcalf, S. (2017). Neoliberalism: the idea that swallowed the world. The Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/news/2017/aug/18/neoliberalism-the-idea-that-changed-the-world

Ro.uow.edu.au. (2017) Available at: http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1220&context=artspapers