Effects of Migration on Development
Migration is currently at the centre of disagreement between developed receiving countries and sending developing countries (Sharma, 2012). According to the United Nation’s Department and Social Population Division, remittances, accumulation of human capital, economic growth and investment opportunities are few of the gains. On the other hand, there are complex challenges such as brain drain, human rights issues, labour shortages, unemployment, multiculturalism, integration, terrorism, coupled with asylum seekers and flow of refugees (MPI, 2016). The Institute indicated that asylum seekers in Europe in the year 2015 was 1 million and again in 2016 (MPI, 2016).
The aim of this piece of writing is to examine how migration of young adults impact development. The first section will focus on how such migration can cause ageing population and labour shortages on development. The second section will look at brain drain of skilled workers on growth and development. The last part will conclude and recommend on how best to mitigate such exoduses.
Youth Migrants Vrs Ageing Population
Many young adults take huge risks to Europe and other continents in search of better life (Adesina 2017). To Adesina, the President of the African Development Bank (ADB), the youth are a valuable resource to the development of Africa. As per a report by the African Union, the 35% of the continent’s population of 1.03 billion, the under 35 are a valuable resource. Meanwhile, unemployment force the youth to migrate causing shortage of labour and a shrinking share of youth in Africa. This leads to wages rise leading to inflation (Economichelp 2016). The Oxford Review of Economic Policy indicates that the number of individuals over 80 years is projected to rise from 1% to 4% by 2050 due to factors like declining fertility rate of which Africa is (Oxford Academic 2010). The youth is the working age according to the editorial page of the Publisher (2015) as they serve as a catalyst to the development of the economic and social. environment as they are future leaders, creators, innovators etc. As such Africa’s youth migration needs a second look as the working age matter in support of the ageing age.
Brain Drain and Development
Brain Drain is harmful to development as it creates limited collection of skilled and qualified individuals (LSE, 2016). The magnitude of Africa’s brain drain into developed nation’s has impacted development as the continent has lost 1/3 of human capital and still losing skilled workers. The report indicates that out of every 9 migrants, 1 has tertiary education. This comprises nurses, doctors, teachers, technicians, lawyers, engineers, professors and others always moving out (UN 2013). This prompted the former South African President, Thabo Mbeki to describe it as ‘frightening’ (LSE 2016). Using the South Africa medical pool becoming scarce as an example, Breier (2008) said South Africa now source doctors from Zambian and Cuba as its own health professionals have left for greener pastures (Breier, 2008). According to Berbelogou (2002), the nature of work and labour process has impacted the economy of Africa as the strength of a nation is determined by its people (Berbelogou 2002), (LSE 2016).
Conclusion and Recommendation
In conclusion, youth migration presents myriad advantages and disadvantages to home and host countries. On the other hand, labour shortages and brain drain of skilled workers impact on the development of the sourcing country. Therefore, youth employment and restiveness, technological advancement, proper educational systems should be tackled as failure of such, will impact the development of Africa.
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