Across the globe, there nations that still suffer underdevelopment and this condition can be permanent most times if not dealt with root causes. Nations have struggled to develop after the cold war. The African continent is one the most underdeveloped continents amongst the seven continents of the world, however colonialism and scramble for Africa caused underdevelopment. Olutayo and Omobowale ( 2007) argue to assert that development was hindered by the state capitalists colonial rule.

The factors which enhance underdevelopment are not any different from the factors that cause poverty. There is a correlation between them although underdevelopment first arose in western history. The causes of underdevelopment can be political, social or economical. Economically, if a country lags behind their neighbour in  GDP terms, there’s a possibility that countries do suffer underdevelopment in the nearby future. Political corruption is also among the reason why a country could be underdeveloped. poverty, illiteracy, and over population also facilitate underdevelopment too an extreme measure.  Since these factors affect people poorly and differently, people are forced to migrate to neighbouring countries or receiving countries. for example, In the last seven years, there’s been more polish people and other EU citizens migrating to Britain for a better life, good job opportunities, free education and healthcare. Jonathon (2006) asserts that, welcoming and making foreigners feel comfortable is act of respect and graciousness. Globalization on the other hand also plays an enormous role in shaping the patterns of forced migration. Marfleet ( 2006) affirms the above point by acknowledging that human beings have a choice to migrate and act responsibly for their action.

Narrowing down underdevelopment and forced migration as an issue affecting nations at large, global leaders are to blame for underdevelopment, because they put these laws and people have to adhere to them. In  stiglitz ( 2009) argument about the economy of America and why it sunk is put down to lax regulations that misguided economic philosophy. He regrets his choice after learning his lessons, because when the economy sunk, the great depression recession arrived too, and a lot of people were affected by it. Despite the public was aware of the repercussions, market leaders and president at the time had to prove a point and made that decision.  According to Herbemas ( 1971), he affirms that the economy should “operate under political control legitimation”. This programme can stabilize growth, maintain employment social security and opportunity for up ward mobility. Therefore global leaders need to be careful with decision making because they do get blamed for a lot of contemporary issues, like poverty, forced migration and displacement, economic crises, over population etc. These problems affect people in various ways including the economy in place.


Jonathon, W,M ( 2006) International Migration: Globalization’s last Frontier Fifth Edition Palgrave Macmillan, St Martin’s Press.

Herbemas,J, ( 1971), Towards, a National Society: London, Heinemann.

Marfleet, P (2006) Refugees in a Global Era: Basingstoke, Hampshire, Palgrave Macmillan Press.

Olutayo, A. O., & Omobowale, A. O. (2007). Capitalism, Globalisation and the Underdevelopment Process in Africa: History in Perpetuity Africa Development, pp.94.

Stiglitz, J (2009)  ‘The global crisis, social protection and jobs’ International Labour Review 148(1-2) pp. 1 – 13.


Clare Susan Senabulya



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